White Dwarf

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White Dwarf is a scaled down test version of the White Giant engine that is intended to launch Panthera. The operating parameters are shown in the table below:

Operating Conditions
Oxidiser Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Fuel 75% Isopropyl alcohol (IPA, C3H8O), 25% water (by mass)
Thrust 1.5 kN
Chamber pressure 10 bar
Chamber temperature 2857 K
O/F ratio 3.5 (by mass - where the water is included in the 'fuel' mass)
Specific impulse 190 s (theoretical)
Mass flow rate 0.803 kg/s (0.625 N2O, 0.134 IPA, 0.044 water)


Cutaway of the White Dwarf CAD.
Outside view of the White Dwarf CAD.

Combustion Chamber

The combustion chamber uses a water-cooled jacket, with a graphite nozzle that is bolted into a retainer ring. The cooling channels are cut into an off-the-shelf copper tube using a CNC machine.


The injector is intended to be a pintle design.