White Dwarf

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White Dwarf is a scaled down test version of the White Giant engine that is intended to launch Panthera. The operating parameters are shown in the table below:

Operating Conditions
Oxidiser Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Fuel 80% Isopropyl alcohol (IPA, C3H8O), 20% water (by mass)
Thrust 1.5 kN
Chamber pressure 10 bar
Chamber temperature 2857 K
O/F ratio 3.5 (by mass - where the water is included in the 'fuel' mass)
Specific impulse 190 s (theoretical)
Mass flow rate 0.803 kg/s (0.625 N2O, 0.143 IPA, 0.0357 water)
Cutaway of the White Dwarf CAD, with the cold-flow injector shown for scale.
Isometric view of the White Dwarf CAD, without the injector.
Isometric cut-away view of the White Dwarf CAD, without the injector.

Combustion Chamber

The combustion chamber uses a water-cooled jacket, with a graphite nozzle. The cooling channels are cut into an off-the-shelf copper tube using a CNC machine.


The injector is intended to be a pintle design.